Modern science has restricted the area where one can wildly speculate to some very narrow fields. Gone are the days when natural philosophers could allow their imagination to roam unhindered. Somebody like Leibniz (see my previous post) could still come up with rather crazy ideas. New ways to open up windows into reality, like the microscope invented by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, allowed Leibniz to come up with new speculations about microscopic universes. So while in the long run, such inventions put ever tighter restrictions on imagination, for some time they even extended it.
Today, however, only small pockets of speculation are left. One is the era of extremely high energies in the first instances of time after the big bang. Energy was so high that it will always remain impossible to reach it in any experiment. If there are different ideas about how the world functioned in that first instance, we will never be able to distinguish between them by any experiment and rule out the wrong ones. Here the borderline between physics and metaphysics is blurred and beyond it, you can still indulge in speculation.
The following idea certainly belongs into that realm of speculation. It certainly belongs into the “crazy idea of the month” category and I am not really serious about it.
An unsolved puzzle is why there is matter, why matter and antimatter did not cancel out each other completely. Perhaps there is some asymmetry between them. Well, it looks like there is one, but it seems to be not big enough. So what happened?
Perhaps matter and antimatter where created in equal amounts and then separated. What could have led to such a separation? One idea that came to my mind is that, although we think of elementary particles as being small, there is, to my knowledge, no known reason why the mass of an elementary particle should not be very large. That the ones we know are small is due to the fact that our particle accelerators, the technology we have to generate them, is limited in its ability to concentrate a large amount of energy in a very small space. But maybe some “elementary particles” are possible that have a mass that is much, much larger. Consider that there is such a particle whose mass equals the mass of the whole observable universe, and perhaps more. Consider a pair of such a particle and its antiparticle are generated in the first instance of the universe, perhaps even many such particle-antiparticle-pairs. They are then separated by the expansion of the universe and then they decay into lighter particles. On of them decays into all the particles that make up our universe, its antiparticle decays equally into the antimatter-particles of an anti-universe. Since all the matter is bundled together into one particle initially and all the antimatter into another one means that matter and antimatter are cleanly separated. The result is a set of universes, each consisting predominantly of one type of matter.
I call this speculative kind of particle the “Universon”.
Granted, this is not science but speculative metaphysics. I don’t believe in it, but it is fun to speculate unabated like that. Maybe the old natural philosophers also did not really believe in all the crazy stuff they invented and published. Did Leibniz believe in his monads and microcosms? Maybe; maybe not. Maybe it was just fun. The restrictions imposed by religion had loosened and the restrictions imposed by science had not yet set in.
Thinking underwent a phase transition, from the solid state of the Scholastic-Aristotelian doctrine to a somewhat liquid or even gaseous state. Later it condensed again and crystallized into the new solid state of modern science. In between everything was possible. The discoveries of the time created enough new information to blow apart the old certainties, but not yet enough constraints to force thinking into new ones.
Speculating about the Universon gives me a glimpse of the intellectual fun possible back in those days.
(The pictures are from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_incomplete_circle_of_everything.svg and https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ptolemy_Sky.jpg. The first picture shows a “Graphic representation of the standard model of elementary particles”. It is interesting here that the arangement of information in the form of a circle is attempted, not unlike attempts of old alchemists to arange everything into a neat order, while the circle and its segments do not have any clear semantics in this graphic representation. The second picture shows a depiction of a version of the old geocentric worldview. There was a considerable degree of speculation and variation even back in medieval times (e.g. the idea of the bishop Robert Grosseteste that the universe started as a point of pure light that expanded into everything), but religion put constraints on speculation).